Guangyun data errors (in Polyhedron distribution)

zdic.net uses the data which is easily accessible.

Here, the chongniu A/B assignment is wrong.

149 居夷 平 脂見開三 脂A kjii ki 飢机肌虮
158 渠脂 平 脂群開三 脂A gjii gi 鬐𦓀耆愭𧡺𥉙䅲祁𨪌鰭鮨

Both of these should be

149 居夷 平脂見開三 脂B kjii ki 飢机肌虮
158 渠脂 平脂群開三 脂B gjii gi 鬐𦓀耆愭𧡺𥉙䅲祁𨪌鰭鮨

These can be varified by consulting 漢子古今音彙 A Pronouncing Dictionary of Chinese Characters, in Archaic & Ancient Chinese, Mandarin & Cantonese, edited by by Chou Fakou 周法高 etc.

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Easy Sentences in Hakka – JDB

Easy Sentences in the Hakka Dialect, with a Vocabulary was first published in Hong Kong in 1881. It came about because Ball who was learning to speak Hakka at the time, decided to translate the earlier work Handbook of the Swatow Dialect with a Vocabulary by Herbert Allen Giles (1877).

Since Ball’s translation is partly unvailable in some places, I have transcribed the pages and created a pdf for the interested reader.

With regards to the layout of the work is slightly different to the original. The only scans that I have available, omit the introduction, whereby Ball would have outline how this work came about, and some notes on the pronunciation and advice for the student, as found in his other work for Cantonese.

Copyright Issues.

This file in the link below is not a scan of the original book. The author James Dyer Ball died in 1919, and Herbert Allen Giles died in 1935. The copyright expired then at 70 years after Giles passed away, so it became a public domain book in 2006.

The file can be downloaded here : JDB-EasySentencesHakkaDialect

A guide to the pronunciation of Hakka is perhaps apt, to fill in the gap due to the missing Introduction.

Pronunciation Guide (1/5)

A Supplementary Guide to Pronunciation (1/5)

Pronunciation Guide (2/5)

Pronunciation Guide (2/5)

Pronunciation Guide (3/5)

Pronunciation Guide (3/5)

Pronunciation Guide (4/5)

Pronunciation Guide (4/5)

Additional Notes to the Pronunciation Guide 5/5

Additional Notes to the Pronunciation Guide 5/5

Edit Notes : A couple of changes were made to the pronunciation guide to correct spacing and character errors.  Some additional notes were added Friday 6th June 2017

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Ruby text and Hakka

Sometimes, additional information is good to have. In Japanese, they sometimes use ruby text above kanji characters so that the reader can be given the correct reading, as kanji have numerous readings depending on the usage in a sentence.

For example, 中 has the  kun reading: なか naka, and  on reading: チュウ chū.cz

中島 【なかじま】 {nakashima} island in a pond or river
宮中 【キュウチュウ】 {kyūchū} imperial court

In print, it is common to find the kana placed aboved the kanji:


(なか)
(じま)


(キュウ)
(チュウ)

To achieve this in HTML, the mark-up language used for ruby text uses the the following tags

<ruby></ruby>  This declares the content as being subject to ruby text positioning

<rp></rp> This declare the ruby parenthesis, for older browsers that cannot interpret ruby markup, the ruby text is placed within parenthesis, which the coder needs to include

<rt></rt> Ruby text goes inside these tags

So, for our examples above we have

<ruby>
中 <rp>(</rp><rt>なか</rt><rp>)</rp>
島 <rp>(</rp><rt>じま</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

<ruby>
宮 <rp>(</rp><rt>キュウ</rt><rp>)</rp>
中 <rp>(</rp><rt>チュウ</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

But it is possible, also, to write them as long line of tags as follows

<ruby> 中 <rp>(</rp><rt>なか</rt><rp>)</rp> 島 <rp>(</rp><rt>じま</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby>
<ruby> 宮 <rp>(</rp><rt>キュウ</rt><rp>)</rp> 中 <rp>(</rp><rt>チュウ</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby>

External Links:

W3Schools example : https://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_rp.asp

WordPress supports Ruby tags : https://en.forums.wordpress.com/topic/ruby-text-in-wordpress?replies=4

 


Uses For Other Chinese Dialects and Sino-Xenic readings.

Now we know the ins-and-outs of using the Ruby tags in HTML, we can adapt the use for indicating character pronunciations for Chinese dialects, such as Hakka or possibly for non-Chinese readings from Vietnam, Korea or Japan.

For tones, I prefer the numerical superscript appearing to the top right of the romanised syllable. The superscript tag in HTML is <sup></sup>. For example:

sung4

is obtained by writing the following

<ruby>宋<rp>(</rp><rt>sung<sup>4</sup></rt><rp>)</rp></ruby>

(N.B.  It can appear as 宋 (sung4)  in browsers which do not support Ruby tags.)

In the Hakka romanisation I usually employ, the maximum number of characters for a romanised syllable reading is seven characters: six for the the longest romanised syllable (e.g. ngiong) and one for the tone (e.g. 2)

Adding spaces between the <rt> tags allow for better ruby text spacing between adjacent entries.

If we add spacing either side of the romanised syllable, for single characters, it doesn’t matter very greatly.
ngiong2 : Without

ngiong2 : With spacing

In multiple character string, it allows the ruby text to be seperated from it’s neighbour.

ngiong2ngiong2 : Without spacing multiple characters

ngiong2 ngiong2 : With spacing multiple characters

The increase in tags within your article can make editing somewhat of a challenge especially when proof reading and trying to edit mistakes in spelling. The close proximity of the superscript to the previous line of text also provides legibility problems if the text is not spaced properly.


( liuk5 )
( liuk5 )
( sam1 )
( sip6 )
( liuk5 )

<ruby>
六 <rp>(</rp> <rt> liuk<sup>5</sup> </rt> <rp>)</rp>
六 <rp>(</rp> <rt> liuk<sup>5</sup> </rt> <rp>)</rp>
三 <rp>(</rp> <rt> sam<sup>1</sup> </rt> <rp>)</rp>
十 <rp>(</rp> <rt> sip<sup>6</sup> </rt> <rp>)</rp>
六 <rp>(</rp> <rt> liuk<sup>5</sup> </rt> <rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

 

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Unicode kTang : Stimson’s Early Middle Chinese

Unicode has had this data field since 1998, yet there has been virtually no information online to explain the details. All you have are a lot of characters with a phonetic transcription.

I’ve recently bought Hugh Stimson’s Fifty Five Tang Poems which has an short explanation on his reconstruction. It has helped me to use the data available to write out an explanation of it for online use.

I’ve also included the entire kTang data for reference. As it is a fairly long essay with many tables, I’ve placed it on my website below.

http://www.dylwhs.talktalk.net/stimson.htm

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English-Hakka Dictionary Online

IMPORTANT NOTICE: Norton has flagged the NTCU site as a security risk. Even though I have reinstated the links, by clicking on any link or links in these webpages, you agree that I will not be responsible for any problems you encounter as a result of what is in those pages, and that you agree to waive any and all rights for any claim against me for any losses, damages or mishap on your part due to your use of the links provided. If you have any doubts, do not click.

The English – Hakka Dictionary 英客字典 (Yin1 Hak5 Su4 Den3) of 1958 was compile by catholic missionaries, Marsecano (萬思謙) Guerrano (吉愛慈), and three Chinese church members 梁木森, 陳俊茂, 邱金漳. The approximately 14x19x3cm book consisted of a title page, a two page introduction, 10 pages of tables and explanation of Hakka sounds and tones, the 620 paged dictionary, a seven page appendex on family relations, time words, cities in Taiwan and weights and measures. Two editions were created: a softcover that came with a brown plastic sleeve with the title imprinted into it; and a hardcover with a gold embossed title on the spine and mottled red cover. It was published by 光啟出版社 priced US$6.00 at the time.

The National Taichung University of Science and Technology has scanned the book and has made it available online. To navigate the pages, I have created an index below of all the scans.

It is important to note that the site is missing 6 page scans from the book. These are 210, 211, 552, 553, 560 and 561.

English – Hakka Dictionary

| 001 Title Page
| 002 Blank
| 003 Introduction
| 004

List of All Hakka Sounds With Corresponding Mandarin Sounds

| i Table A
| ii Tables B and C
| iii Tables D and E
| iv Tables F and G
| v Tables H and I
| vi Tables J and K
| vii Tables L and M
| viii Table N and O

The Six Tones of the Hakka Dialect

| ix
| x

A

| 001 # A – Abnegation
| 002 Abnormal – Abscess
| 003 Absence – Academician
| 004 Academy – Accordance
| 005 According to – Acquaintance
| 006 Acquaintance – Adage
| 007 Adam – Admission
| 008 Admit – Advice
| 009 Advice – Afford
| 010 Affright – Aggressor
| 011 Agile – Akin
| 012 Alacrity – Alliance
| 013 Allied states – Alter ego
| 014 Alteration – Ambuscade
| 015 Ambuscade – Amplify
| 016 Amplitude – Ancestral
| 017 Anchor – Annex
| 018 Annex – Antagonist
| 019 Antagonize – Anxious
| 020 Anxious – Apostleship
| 021 Apostolic – Applause
| 022 Apple – Approach
| 023 Approbation – Archangel
| 024 Archbishop – Arm
| 025 Arm – Arrive
| 026 Arrogance – As
| 027 As – Ask
| 028 Ask – Assidious
| 029 Assign – Astonish
| 030 Astonishment – Atomic
| 031 Atomic – Attention
| 032 Attentive – Augment
| 033 Augmentation – Authority
| 034 Authority – Avenge
| 035 Avenue – Awkward
| 036 Awkward – Azure |

B

| 036 B.C. – Backward
| 037 Bacon – Balloon
| 038 Ballot – Bar
| 039 Barbarian – Bat
| 040 Bath – Beast
| 041 Beast – Beet
| 042 Beetle – Believe
| 043 Believer – Benignant
| 044 Benignant – Better
| 045 Better – Big
| 046 Big – Birthplace
| 047 Birthplace – Blame
| 048 Blame – Blessing
| 049 Blind – Blow
| 050 Blow – Body
| 051 Body – Book
| 052 Book – Bothersome
| 053 Bothersome – Boycott
| 054 Boycott – Breach
| 055 Breach – Breviary
| 056 Brevity – Brilliancy
| 057 Brilliant – Brother
| 058 Brother – Buddhist
| 059 Buddhist – Bunch
| 060 Bunch – Bub
| 061 Bub – Buy
| 062 Buyer – Byword |

C

| 062 Cabbage – Cadet
| 063 Caecum – Calligraphy
| 064 Calling – Cancellation
| 065 Cancellation – Canopy
| 066 Canteen – Captive
| 067 Captive – Carefully
| 068 Carefulness – Carry
| 069 Carry – Caste
| 070 Caste – Catechetical
| 071 Catechism – Cause
| 072 Caustic – Celestial
| 073 Celestial – Center
| 074 Centigrade – Certainly
| 075 Certainty – Champion
| 076 Championship – Character
| 077 Character – Charm
| 078 Charm – Cheek
| 079 Cheek – Chicken
| 080 Chicken – Chin
| 081 China – Choose
| 082 Choose – Chronic
| 083 Chronic – Circle
| 084 Circle – Circumstance
| 085 Circumstance – Claimant
| 086 Clairvoyance – Classify
| 087 Classify – Clericalism
| 088 Clerk – Close
| 089 Close – Coast
| 090 Coat – Cognizance
| 091 Cognizance – College
| 092 College – Come
| 093 Come – Commendable
| 094 Commendable – Commotion
| 095 Commotion – Comparison
| 096 Compartment – Complaint
| 097 Complaisance – Composite
| 098 Composition – Conceal
| 099 Conceal – Conclude
| 100 Conclude – Conditional
| 101 Condole – Confide
| 102 Confide – Confront
| 103 Confront – Conjoin
| 104 Conjoint – Conscience
| 105 Conscience – Consider
| 106 Consider – Constellation
| 107 Consternation – Consumation
| 108 Comsumation – Continent
| 109 Contigency – Contrast
| 110 Contravene – Converse
| 111 Conversion – Cool
| 112 Cool – Corollary
| 113 Corona – Corrode
| 114 Corrode – Count
| 115 Count – Court
| 116 Courteous – Crane
| 117 Cranium – Cremation
| 118 Crematorium – Crossroad
| 119 Crossword – Crystal
| 120 Crystalline – Curio
| 121 Curio – Cut
| 122 Cutaneous – Cystisis |

D

| 122 Dabble – Damned
| 123 Damned – Dash
| 124 Dash – Dead
| 125 Dead – Deathless
| 126 Deathly – Decadent
| 127 Decagon – Decimal
| 128 Decimate – Decomposition
| 129 Decorate – Deed
| 130 Deem – Defective
| 131 Defence – Definitive
| 132 Definitive – Deign
| 133 Deign – Delicious
| 134 Delight – Demobilization
| 135 Demobilize – Dentifrice
| 136 Dentist – Deposition
| 137 Deposition – Derision
| 138 Derivable – Designing
| 139 Desirable – Desititute
| 140 Destitution – Detonation
| 141 Dethrone – Diabetes
| 142 Diabolic – Difference
| 143 Difference – Dilapidate
| 144 Dilapidation – Diplomat
| 145 Diplomatic – Disappointment
| 146 Disapprobation – Discolour
| 147 Discolour – Discredit
| 148 Discreet – Disgust
| 149 Disgustful – Dismember
| 150 Dismiss – Disposal
| 151 Disposal – Dissipate
| 152 Dissipate – Distinguish
| 153 Distinguished – Diversity
| 154 Divert – Dockyard
| 155 Doctor – Dominion
| 156 Dominion – Downcast
| 157 Downfall – Drastic
| 158 Draw – Drive
| 159 Drive – Due
| 160 Due – Dutiable
| 161 Dutiful – Dysentery |

E

| 161 Each – Early
| 162 Early – Easy
| 163 Easy – Economist
| 164 Economize – Effect
| 165 Effect – Egregious
| 166 Egress – Electoral
| 167 Electric – Elevation
| 168 Elevation – Emancipate
| 169 Emancipate – Embody
| 170 Embolism – Empirical
| 171 Empiricism – Enchantment
| 172 Encircle – Endanger
| 173 Endeavour – Engagement
| 174 Engagement – Enlighten
| 175 Enlist – Ensue
| 176 Entangle – Entrance
| 177 Entrance – Epilepsy
| 178 Epilogue – Equip
| 179 Equipage – Error
| 180 Error – Essence
| 181 Essence – Ethiopian
| 182 Ethnic – Evasive
| 183 Eve – Everything
| 184 Everything – Exactly
| 185 Exactness – Exceed
| 186 Exceed – Excitable
| 187 Excitant – Excursion
| 188 Excursion – Exhalation
| 189 Exhale – Exorbitance
| 190 Exorbitance – Expeditionary
| 191 Expeditionary – Expire
| 192 Expire – Exposition
| 193 Expostulate – Extend
| 194 Extendable – Extract
| 195 Extract – Exultant
| 196 Exultation – Eye Witness |

F

| 196 Fable – Fabrication
| 197 Fabricator – Factotum
| 198 Faculty – Faith
| 199 Faith – Falter
| 200 Fame – Fancy
| 201 Fantastic – Fashion
| 202 Fashionable – Fate
| 203 Fateful – Favor
| 204 Favorable – Feather
| 205 Feature – Felicitate
| 206 Felicitation – Fertile
| 207 Fertile – Fickle
| 208 Fickle – Fight
| 209 Fight – Fillet
| 210 Film – Fine
| 211 Fine – Fire
| 212 Fire – First
| 213 First – Fit
| 214 Fitness – Flame
| 215 Flame – Flavoring
| 216 Flaw – Flight
| 217 Flight – Florescent
| 218 Floriculture – Flush
| 219 Flush – Follow
| 220 Follow – Foot
| 221 Footing – Foreward
| 222 Forehanded – Forget
| 223 Forgetful – Formulary
| 224 Formulate – Forward
| 225 Fossil – Fragment
| 226 (Fragment) Fragrance – Freedom
| 227 Freedom – Fright
| 228 Fright – Frown
| 229 Frown – Full
| 230 Fully – Furrow
| 231 Furrow – Futurity |

G

| 231 Gage – Gallery
| 232 Gallery – Garden
| 233 Gardener – Gay
| 234 (Gay) Gaze – Generation
| 235 Generative – Geomancy
| 236 Geometry – Gift
| 237 Gift – Glass
| 238 Glazier – Gnash
| 239 Gnat – Godmother
| 240 Godown – Gourd
| 241 Gout – Graduate
| 242 Graduation – Graphic
| 243 Graphite – Gravitation
| 244 Gravity – Grimace
| 245 Grin – Growth
| 246 Growth – Gulf
| 247 Gull – Gyroscope |

H

| 247 Ha – Hail
| 248 Hail – Handicraft
| 249 Handiwork – Hardship
| 250 Hardware – Have
| 251 Have – Heart-broken
| 252 Heart-felt – Helm
| 253 Helmet – Hermaphrodite
| 254 Hermetic – Hinder
| 255 Hindrance – Hold
| 256 (Hold) Holder – Honest
| 257 (Honest) Honesty – Horse
| 258 Hose – How
| 259 How – Hundred
| 260 Hundred – Hyperbole
| 261 Hypercritical – Hysteria |

I

| 261 I – Idea
| 262 Idea – Ignite
| 263 (Ignite) Ignoble – Illness
| 264 Illuminate – Immaterial
| 265 Immature – Immune
| 266 Immunity – Imperative
| 267 Imperceptible – Impolite
| 268 Imponderable – Impress
| 269 (Impress) Impressible – Impure
| 270 Impurity – Inattentive
| 271 Inaudible – Incipient
| 272 Incision – Inconclusive
| 273 (Inconclusive) Incongruous – Incur
| 274 Incur – Indian
| 275 Indicative – Indistinct
| 276 Indistinguishable – Inefficient
| 277 Inelegant – Infectious
| 278 Infecund – Influence
| 279 Influential – Inheritance
| 280 Inhospitable – Innocent
| 281 Innocent – Insect
| 282 Insecticide – Insomnia
| 283 Inspect – Instigate
| 284 Instigation – Insurmountable
| 285 Insurrection – Intentionally
| 286 Inter – Interline
| 287 Interlinear – Interrogatory
| 288 Interrupt – Intoxicated
| 289 Intoxication – Invalidate
| 290 (Invalidate) Invalidity – Invitation |

| 291 Invitation – Irrefragable
| 292 Irrefutable – Issue
| 293 Issue – Ivy |

J

| 293 Jacket – Javanese
| 294 Jaw – Joint
| 295 Joke – Jug
| 296 (Jug) Juggle – Justifiable
| 297 Justification – Juxtaposition |

K

| 297 Kaki – Key
| 298 (Key) Khaki – Knee
| 299 Knee – Kotow |

L

| 300 Label – Lagoon
| 301 Laic – Lap
| 302 Lapidation – Latter
| 303 Lattice – Layer
| 304 Laying – Lease
| 305 Leasehold – Leisure
| 306 (Leisure) Leisurely – Letter
| 307 Letter – Lie
| 308 (Lie) Lieutenant – Liking
| 309 Liking – Listen
| 310 Listen – Load
| 311 Load – Long
| 312 Longevity – Loud
| 313 Lourdes – Luck
| 314 Luckily – Lyric |

M

| 314 Ma – Magnetize
| 315 Magnificent – Make
| 316 Make – Man
| 317 Man – Manners
| 318 Manoeuver – Marionette
| 319 (Marionette) Marital – Martial
| 320 Martial – Marital
| 321 Martial – Mast
| 322 Master – Matrimony
| 323 (Matrimony) Matrix – Meaning
| 324 Means – Mediation
| 325 Mediator – Melodious
| 326 Melody – Menstruation
| 327 (Menstruation) Mensurable – Merriment
| 328 Merry – Mexico
| 329 Miasma – Military
| 330 Military – Mineral
| 331 Mineralogy – Miscarriage
| 332 Miscellaneous – Missionary
| 333 Misspell – Moderate
| 334 Moderation – Moment
| 335 Moment – Monstrous
| 336 Month – Morocco
| 337 Morose – Mother
| 338 Mother – Mouth
| 339 Mouthful – Multiplier
| 340 Multiply – Mutable
| 341 Mutation – Mythology |

N

| 342 Nadir – Nascent
| 343 (Nascent) Natal – Nature
| 344 Naught – Necessity
| 345 Necessity – Neighboring
| 346 Neither – Nether
| 347 Nethertheless – Night
| 348 Night – Noise
| 349 Noise – Northward
| 350 Norway – Notification
| 351 Notify – Nullify
| 352 Numb – Nutritive |

O

| 352 O – Obdurate
| 353 Obedience – Obnoxious
| 354 (Obnoxious) Obscene – Occasion
| 355 Occasion – Odium
| 356 Odour – Officer
| 357 Officer – On
| 358 On – Operate
| 359 Operate – Optional
| 360 Opulence – Ore
| 361 Organ – Oscillation
| 362 Osculate – Outing
| 363 Outline – Overcome
| 364 Overcome – Owl
| 365 Own – Ozone |

P

| 365 Pace – Paddle
| 366 (Paddle) Pagan – Pall
| 367 Pall-Bearer – Papaya
| 368 Paper – Pardon
| 369 Pardon – Parthenogenesis
| 370 Partial – Pass
| 371 Pass – Pastoral
| 372 Pasture – Patronage
| 373 Patronize – Peach
| 374 (Peach) Peacock – Peg
| 375 Peg – Penny
| 376 (Penny) Pension – Perfection
| 377 Perfection – Permission
| 378 Permit – Personification
| 379 (Personification) Personify – Pew
| 380 Pewter – Photographic
| 381 Photography – Piece
| 382 Pier – Pioneer
| 383 Pious – Place
| 384 Place – Platoon
| 385 Platinum – Plenipotenciary
| 386 Pleniture – Pocket
| 387 Pocket – Politic
| 388 Political – Pony
| 389 Pool – Portico
| 390 (Portico) Portion – Post
| 391 Postage – Pour
| 392 Pour – Praise
| 393 (Praise) Praiseworthy – Precipice
| 394 Precipitate – Prefer
| 395 Preferable – Prepare
| 396 Prepay – Preserve
| 397 Preserver – Pretermit
| 398 (Pretermit) Preternatural – Prickly
| 399 Price – Priority
| 400 Prism – Process
| 401 Procession – Profess
| 402 Profess – Progression
| 403 Prohibit – Prompt
| 404 Prompt – Prophet
| 405 (Prophet) Prophetical – Prospect
| 406 (Prospect) Prospectus – Proud
| 407 (Proud) Prove – Proximate
| 408 Proximity – Publish
| 409 (Publish) Pudding – Pungent
| 410 Punish – Purposely
| 411 Purse – Pajamas
| 412 Pylorus – Pyx |

Q

| 412 Quack – Quarrel
| 413 (Quarrel) Quarrelsome – Quiet
| 414 Quiet – Quotient |

R

| 415 Rabbit – Rag
| 416 Rage – Rampant
| 417 Rampart – Rasp
| 418 Rat – Raw
| 419 Ray – Realize
| 420 Really – Recall
| 421 Recapitulate – Recital
| 422 Recite – Reconcile
| 423 Reconcilliation – Rectory
| 424 (Rectory) Rectum – Reduction
| 425 Redundant – Reflex
| 426 (Reflex) Reflexive – Refuse
| 427 Refutable – Regular
| 428 Regular – Relapse
| 429 Relate – Relief
| 430 Relief – Remainder
| 431 Remains – Remorse
| 432 (Remorse) Remote – Rent
| 433 Rent – Repetition
| 434 Replace – Repress
| 435 (Repress) Repressive – Repulsion
| 436 Repulsive – Resent
| 437 Resentful – Resist
| 438 (Resist) Resistance – Respective
| 439 (Respective) Respiration – Restore
| 440 Restore – Retaliatory
| 441 Retard – Retroactive
| 442 (Retroactive) Retrocede – Revere
| 443 Reverence – Revolt
| 444 Revolution – Rice
| 445 Rice – Right
| 446 Right – Rise
| 447 Rise – Road
| 448 Roam – Roll
| 449 Roll – Rosary
| 450 Rosary – Roundabout
| 451 Rouse – Ruffle
| 452 Rug – Run
| 453 Run – Ruthless

S

| 454 Sabbath – Sad
| 455 Sadden – Saliva
| 456 Sally – Sand
| 457 Sandal – Satisfaction
| 458 Satisfactory – Say
| 459 (Say) Saying – Scatter
| 460 Scene – Scission
| 461 Scissors – Screen
| 462 (Screen) Screw – Seam
| 463 (Seam) Seaman – Secrete
| 464 Secretion – See
| 465 Seed – Semblance
| 466 (Semblance) Semen – Sense
| 467 (Sense) Senseless – Septennial
| 468 Septentrion – Serpentine
| 469 (Serpentine) Serum – Set
| 470 (Set) Setee – Sexuality
| 471 (Sexuality) Shabby – Shameful
| 472 (Shameful) Shameless – Shed
| 473 Sheep – Shoal
| 474 (Shoal) Shook – Shot
| 475 (Shot) Shoulder – Shut
| 476 Shut – Sift
| 477 Sigh – Silhouette
| 478 Silk – Sin
| 479 Sin – Sink
| 480 (Sink) Sinless – Size
| 481 Size – Slack
| 482 (Slack) Slacker – Slice
| 483 Slide – Smack
| 484 Small – Smooth
| 485 Smooth – Snow
| 486 Snowy – Society
| 487 Sociology – Sole
| 488 Solemn – Solve
| 489 (Solve) Solvent – Son-in-law
| 490 Sonant – Sort
| 491 Sortable – Sovereign
| 492 Sovereign – Sparkling
| 493 (Sparkling) Sparrow – Specify
| 494 Specimen – Spell
| 495 Spelling – Spirit
| 496 Spirit – Spleen
| 497 Splendid – Spoonful
| 498 Sporadic – Sprinkle
| 499 Sprout – Squirrel
| 500 Stab – Stale
| 501 Stalk – Standpoint
| 502 Standstill – Statesman
| 503 Statesmanship – Steak
| 504 Steal – Stepmother
| 505 Stepsister – Stifle
| 506 Stigma – Stir
| 507 Stirrup – Stoop
| 508 Stoop – Stout
| 509 (Stout) Stow – Strangle
| 510 (Strangle) Strangulate – Strength
| 511 Strengthen – String
| 512 Stringency – Stubborn
| 513 (Stubborn) Stucco – Stupor
| 514 Sturdy – Subject
| 515 Subject – Subscriber
| 516 (Subscriber) Subscription – Subterfuge
| 517 Subterranean – Succumb
| 518 (Succumb) Such – Suffocate
| 519 (Suffocate) Suffocation – Suitor
| 520 Sullen – Sun
| 521 Sun – Supererogation
| 522 Supererogatory – Superposition
| 523 Superscription – Suppose
| 524 Suppose – Surgical
| 525 Surmise – Survey
| 526 (Survey) Surveyance – Substain
| 527 (Substain) Sustenance – Sweep
| 528 (Sweep) Sweet – Swing
| 529 Swing – Symptom
| 530 (Symptom) Synagogue – Systematize |

T

| 531 T – Take
| 532 Take – Talk
| 533 Talkative – Tartar
| 534 (Tartar) Tartaric – Tea
| 535 (Tea) Teach – Telephone
| 536 Telephone – Temporal
| 537 Temporal Temporary – Tenor
| 538 (Tenor) Tense – Terrace
| 539 Terracotta – Text
| 540 (Text) Textile – Them
| 541 Theme – Thermos
| 542 These – Thinker
| 543 Thinking – Thought
| 544 Thought – Throng
| 545 (Throng) Through – Thyroid
| 546 Thyself – Tile
| 547 Till – Tin
| 548 Tincture – Title
| 549 Title – Toilet
| 550 Toilet – Tongue
| 551 (Tongue) Tonic – Torment
| 552 Tornado – Touch
| 553 Touching – Trace
| 554 Trace – Train
| 555 Train – Transfer
| 556 (Transfer) Transfiguration – Transmission
| 557 (Transmission) Transmit – Travel
| 558 Travel – Treatise
| 559 Treatment – Triangular
| 560 Tribe – Trinity
| 561 Trinomial – Tropic
| 562 Tropical – Trumpet
| 563 (Trumpet) Truncate – Tuft
| 564 Tug – Turn
| 565 Turn – Twinkling
| 566 Twinkling – Tyro

U

| 567 Ubiquitous – Unalterable
| 568 Unanimity – Uncertain
| 569 Uncertainty – Undated
| 570 Undamaged – Understand
| 571 Understanding – Unearthly
| 572 Uneasy – Ungrateful
| 573 Unguarded – Unison
| 574 Unit – Unmarried
| 575 Unmask – Unprofitable
| 576 Unprotected – Unskilful
| 577 Unsociable – Unwelcome
| 578 Unwell – Upper
| 579 Uppermost – Urine
| 580 Urn – Utmost
| 581 Utopia – Uxorious

V

| 581 Vacancy – Vague
| 582 Vain – Vanish
| 583 Vanish – Vaticinator
| 584 Vault – Venerate
| 585 Veneration – Verbose
| 586 Verdict – Very
| 587 Vessication – Vibratory
| 588 Vicar – Vignette
| 589 Vigor – Violin
| 590 Violincello – Vision
| 591 Visionary – Vocable
| 592 Vocabulary – Voltage
| 593 Voltameter – Vow
| 594 Vow – Vulva

W

| 594 Wad – Wainscot
| 595 Waist – Waltz
| 596 Wand – Wardroom
| 597 Ware – Wash
| 598 Wash – Water
| 599 Water – Waver
| 600 Wax – Wealth
| 601 Wealthy – Wedding
| 602 Wedge – Welcome
| 603 Weld – What
| 604 What – Whether
| 605 Wetstone – Whitewash
| 606 Who – Wide
| 607 Wide – Will
| 608 Will – Widow
| 609 Windpipe – Wire
| 610 Wise – Withdraw
| 611 Withdraw – Wolf
| 612 Woman – Word
| 613 Word – World
| 614 World – Worship
| 615 Worship – Wrap
| 616 Wrapper – Writing
| 617 Writing – Wry |

X

| 617 Xenophobia – Xylophone |

Y

| 617 Yacht – Yarn
| 618 Yawn – Yielding
| 619 Yoke – Yuletide |

Z

| 619 Zeal – Zero
| 620 Zest – Zoology |

Appendix Tables

| 1 A. Family Relations
| 2 cont.
| 3 cont.
| 4 cont.
| 4 B. Time
| 5 cont.
| 5 C. Cities in Taiwan
| 6 cont.
| 7 D. Weights, Length, Volumen, Area

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Sidu Hakka Kin Terms

The regional dialects can differ greatly in vocabulary, and this can clearly be heard in kin terms. Our look at Sidu 四都 Hakka might interest the reader.

An older sister in other Hakka dialects is (A1 Zia3 亞姐, all usual Hakka terms in rounded brackets), in Sidu Hakka she is known as A T’ai 亞大.
E.g. for a given girl’s name, Moi 梅, it is appended after the term : Moi T’ai 梅大.

Your father’s parents are termed A Tsei 亞䶒 for grandmother (A1 Po2 亞婆), A Die 亞爹 and grandfather (A1 Gung1 亞公).

A Ya 亞爺 is an uncle older than your father (A1 Bak5 亞伯),
Sim Ngiong 嬸娘 is his wife (Suk5 Me1 叔姆).

A Gung 亞公 can be your paternal grandfather’s younger brothers (Suk5 Gung1 叔公), and might be a contraction of Suk Gung 叔公.

A Bak 亞伯 can be your paternal grandfather’s older brother’s wife ( Bak5 Po2 伯婆) possibly a contraction of 伯婆. It also is also a contraction of paternal grandfather’s older brother (Bak5 Gung1 伯公), so it can refer to either partner if the context is already known, say commenting on a picture of an elderly relative.

A Gung A Po (A1 Gung1 A1 Po2 亞公亞婆) refers to any senior man or woman respectively if they are probably in your grandparents’ generation, and is respectful for any so called uncle or auntie who is not a relation.

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Book: Introduction to Hakka, James M. Drought

I have looked forward to reading this for some time. Now I have it before me, I can review it for you.

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There are several good things about Drought’s Introduction to Hakka (1926) though, firstly it is a text that doesn’t shy away from using Chinese characters for colloquially spoken words.

A good set of sound drills enable the reader to differentiate the tones in syllable in isolation and in compound words.

Lessons introduce new Chinese characters, followed by  sentences or dialogues. There are english translation of each dialogue. The lesson is rounded off by discussing the use of the points of grammar and syntax that crop up.

A small look up grammar serves as a handy reference.

A character and meaning list is provided at the back.

It uses a romanisation that a major dictionary utilises – Rey’s Dictionnairre Chinoise – Français, Dialect Hac-Ka (1901, 1926) which is an odd one to choose since the author writes in English whilst the Dictionnairre is in French. But, another later Catholic publication, Hakka for Beginners (1948, 1952), also employs the same romanisation over two decades later, and so does Marsecano’s English Hakka Dictionary  (1958). Compare this to Bernhard Mercer’s Hakka Chinese Lessons (1930) which is romanised similar to the work in MacIver’s A Chinese English dictionary, Hakka Dialect (1905, expanded and reordered by MacKenzie 1926), these being Anglican and Baptist works. Perhaps there seems to be a rivalry between these churches.

As an aside, the Dutch language work Leerboek voor het Praktisch Gebruik van het Hakka-Dialect 客話指南 uses a romanisation that its author Br. Canisius van de Ven created, and German speaking Basel Mission works used a system like the Lepsius one.

Drought peppers lessons with his religious themes, including admonitions against consorting with pagans and superstitions, whilst managing to create a manifesto (p. 231-238) for the prohibition of traditional Chinese folk religious practices and festival observations which forms a core part of Hakka culture and custom. Thus pagan as the author puts it pejoratively is all the non-Christian culture he finds detestable. Perhaps then, Drought is educating Catholic teachers and preachers in how to tell their followers how to be true to their own faith. This leads the reader to a place where he may or not be sympathetic to the message given in these lessons.

The language used in Introduction to Hakka purports to be of the Moiyen dialect, but notes in other locales Hakka pronunciation may be different.

The use of 现在 is not colloquial Hakka but comes from the common written language, Chinese.

We find the Catholics had a different system for naming the weeks, and he compares it to the civil and protestant form, but advises the learner to use the civil version instead.

Sunday,Monday, Tuesday etc
Catholic 主日,瞻禮二,瞻禮三
Civil 星期日,星期一,星期二
Protestant 禮拜日,禮拜一, 禮拜三

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